Attributing and Quoting
Just as important as referencing, Attribution and Quoting incorporate the spoken or written words of authors, poets, academics and professionals in a given field, but also incorporate information about those people's lives and credentials. Quotes are useful as evidence for claims, to support points and provide examples; whereas attribution makes quotes and ideas of a higher quality or more analytical.
There are various instances in which attribution is useful in writing. Within a TEEPEE paragraph you may find attribution in the evidence section, or in the purpose and effect sections, depending on the type of information being included. Below are some instances in which attribution is helpful:
any second-hand information
criticisms or controversial positions
all quote types (direct and indirect)
What aspects of a person or source do I attribute?
This really depends on the evidence you are presenting and how it fits within the argument or claim you are making. However, here are some basic components that may be seen in an attribution:
Full name (person or entity)
Job or position
Relationship to evidence
Evidence type (novel, feature film, etc)
Evidence delivery (says, wrote, etc)
How do I attribute quotes?
If the quote is long, put the attribution first. For example:
Oscar Wilde, author of Dorian Gray, writes, “Those who find ugly meanings in beautiful things are corrupt without being charming. This is a fault. Those who find beautiful meanings in beautiful things are the cultivated. For these there is hope. They are the elect to whom beautiful things mean only Beauty. There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. Books are well written, or badly written. That is all.”
If the attribution is long, reverse the order. For example:
“The books that the world calls immoral are books that show the world its own shame," noted Dorian Gray, the lead antagonist of the noval Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde.
To give variety to your sentence structure you may break up the quote and include attribution in the middle. For example:
“You will always be fond of me," Dorian says to Basil, and continues with, "I represent to you all the sins you never had the courage to commit.”